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General Walter Bedell Smith as Director of Central Intelligence, October 1950–February 1953

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    Available in PDF - DJVU Format | General Walter Bedell Smith as Director of Central Intelligence, October 1950–February 1953.pdf | Language: ENGLISH
    LudwellL. Montague(Author)

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This book continues the official history of the CIA begun in Arthur Darling's The Central Intelligence Agency.

Ludwell Lee Montague's book is one of the first documents, along with Darling's history, to be declassified and made available under the CIA's Historical Review Program, launched in 1985. Montague was a leading government official who participated in the interdepartmental debate over the postwar organization of U.S. intelligence that occurred in 1945. He drafted many of the policies of the Joint Chiefs of Staff during this bureaucratic struggle, including JIC 239/5, the plan that was also the basis for the establishment of the Central Intelligence Group, the predecessor of the CIA. He served as General Smith's executive assistant when Smith was appointed Director of Central Intelligence in 1950.

Montague contends that Smith is so important to the development of the intelligence community that the history of the community can legitimately be thought of as "pre-Smith and post-Smith." The book focuses on the initiatives that Smith implemented in order to reform the U.S. intelligence community, which was under heavy criticism at the time for a series of intelligence failure. The reorganization of the intelligence community described here contains, with just a few exceptions, the predecessors of the major organizational components of today's CIA.

This book serves as an important companion to Arthur Darling's book in that it provides both background material and Montague's opinion concerning how Darling's study came into existence. Most of this work survived the declassification process relatively intact to give us a detailed analysis of a critical period in the development of the intelligence community.

Declassified under the Historical Review Program the CIA authorized in 1985, this inside account by Montague, once the executive assistant to CIA director Walter Bedell Smith, tells how the modern intelligence community was established and expanded after WW II. Montague reveals how Smith, named the CIA's fourth director in 1950, defined the agency's role and responsibilities and reorganized it in light of mounting Soviet subversion and the outbreak of the Korean War. Montague, who died in 1972, also discusses Smith's still-reverberating reputation as the CIA's resident "ogre," arguing that his irritable impatience was a managerial technique meant to masked an essentially kind nature. The study sheds considerable light on the birth of the modern national security state. Montague participated in many of the events chronicled here. Copyright 1992 Reed Business Information, Inc. --This text refers to an alternate Paperback edition. In this second recently declassified in-house history of the detailed workings at the upper levels, Montague demonstrates that Smith's ability to reorganize and take control made him the CIA's genuine founder. Montague, an intelligence officer who completed this important account in 1971, continues the description initiated by Arthur Darling's The Central Agency: An Instrument of Government, to 1950 ( LJ 11/15/90) and is critical of Darling's work as well as of Smith's predecessors, the first three directors. For specialists only.- Ron Christenson, Gustavus Adolphus Coll., St. Peter, Minn.Copyright 1992 Reed Business Information, Inc. --This text refers to an alternate Paperback edition.

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Book details

  • PDF | 336 pages
  • LudwellL. Montague(Author)
  • Penn State University Press; 1 edition (February 15, 2007)
  • English
  • 3
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Review Text

  • By Vic Currier on December 25, 2012

    Author Ludwell Lee Montague was a career CIA 'insider' - one of the original 10 hires at the Central Intelligence Group (CIG) - and its 'second official historian'. The first, Arthur Burr Darling, an 'outsider' and career history professor, was commissioned by one of Montague's principal subjects - William Harding Jackson (1901-1971) - the Agency's first DDCI (...prior DDCI's worked at the CI 'Group'), to cover the OSS and early CIG years leading up to 1950, under Admiral Souers, General Vandenberg, and Adm. Hillenkoetter, the first 3 DCI's. Montague knew how the 'Agency' evolved from inside CIA-HQ, making this a valuable piece of history. Bill Jackson, a 17-year senior partner at the Wall Street firm 'Carter, Ledyard & Milburn' (CL&M), was President Truman's first choice for Director of the Central Intelligence 'Agency' in the 1950 selection process (...Gen. Wild Bill Donovan and Allen Welsh Dulles were not seriously considered); however, Bill Jackson declined, in favor of his then lucrative Wall Street career; instead, a reluctant Lt. Gen. Walter Bedell Smith (...the recently returned US Ambassador to the Soviet Union 1946-1948 who had severe health issues) took the job and persuaded Bill Jackson to become the first Deputy Director (DDCI) of the 'Agency' on a temporary basis (Oct50-Aug51). Jackson remained as a 'contract' advisor to DCI's Smith and Dulles, until becoming National Security Advisor in 1956. Knowing Allen Dulles's value as a master spy, Smith and Jackson soon brought him to CIA to run counter-espionage and covert ops as Deputy Director-Plans in 1951 (...by 1953, Dulles was DCI). Bill Jackson then hired a former CL&M law partner, Wayne Gridley Jackson, to be Allen Dulles's only assistant. Wayne Jackson, also a career CIA insider, later became DCI Dulles's Chief of Staff, and is considered by many to be the 'third official CIA historian.' Two more Bill Jackson CL&M law partners (Tracy Barnes and Frank Wisner, Sr.) worked under Dulles. Bill Jackson hired his former Briefing Officer at 12th Army Group G-2, Lyman Kirkpatrick, Jr.; his former OSS 'X-2' ULTRA code officer, William 'Bill' Bundy; and intelligence guru Sherman Kent, who authored the 'bible' for the intelligence world, to work at CIA (with Smith's hire, William Langer), formulating daily national intelligence estimates and executive action plans for the president, any president. Together, these men and a handful of others, were the core co-founders of the 'Agency'; a group that would continue to mold the foreign intelligence 'community' for years to come - along with another Jackson CL&M law partner, Gordon Gray. This is an authoritative, somewhat 'sanitized' and reliable research work; originally intended as an internal CIA 'secret' document for succeeding DCI's; a reliable road-map. After meeting Bill Jackson in Tucson, AZ in 1970, and after 4-years researching Jackson's life, I can attest to that statement though I am not an 'insider.' Montague's book was written in 1971 and published in 1992 for the public. It benefited from both Adm. Souers' and Bill Jackson's review & comment on the majority of it, 20-years after the fact, before Jackson died in Sept. 1971. It was published internally in Dec. 1971. Montague died 4-months later. Consequently, it suffers from lack of access to once top secret material; recently declassified updates which should be, or have been, made available to the public - over the past 40-years. If you can get past the web of ever changing initials assigned to various departments and positions, and operational codes and correspondence, it is a basic primer (...as are the historical works of Darling and Wayne Jackson...) from which to begin study of the 'Agency' in the form we know it, today. After that, turn to the CIA's 'Center for the Study of Intelligence' for more updated information in the public domain. This is highly recommended reading for the serious intelligence and national security professional. ...Know where you came from, so you'll know where you're going. Excellent book.


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